完整的代码如下:

import java.io.BufferedReader;
import java.io.BufferedWriter;
import java.io.InputStreamReader;
import java.io.OutputStreamWriter;
import java.net.Socket;
import java.security.cert.CertificateException;
import java.security.cert.X509Certificate;
import javax.net.ssl.SSLContext;
import javax.net.ssl.SSLSocketFactory;
import javax.net.ssl.TrustManager;
import javax.net.ssl.X509TrustManager;
/**
* JAVA操作SSL协议,通过Socket访问Https的程序代码例子。
*
*
*/
public class ReadHttpsURL {
// 默认的HTTPS 端口      visit
static final int HTTPS_PORT = 443;
public static void main(String argv[]) throws Exception {
// 受访主机
String host = “www.google.com”;
// 受访的页面
String url = “/adsense/?sourceid=aso&subid=ZH_CN-ET-AS-ADSBY6&medium=link&hl=zh_CN”;
// 自定义的管理器
X509TrustManager xtm = new Java2000TrustManager();
TrustManager mytm[] = { xtm };
// 得到上下文
SSLContext ctx = SSLContext.getInstance(“SSL”);
// 初始化
ctx.init(null, mytm, null);
// 获得工厂
SSLSocketFactory factory = ctx.getSocketFactory();
// 从工厂获得Socket连接
Socket socket = factory.createSocket(host, HTTPS_PORT);
// 剩下的就和普通的Socket操作一样了
BufferedWriter out = new BufferedWriter(new OutputStreamWriter(socket.getOutputStream()));
BufferedReader in = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(socket.getInputStream()));
out.write(“GET ” + url + ” HTTP/1.0

“);
out.flush();
System.out.println(“start   work!”);
String line;
StringBuffer sb = new StringBuffer();
while ((line = in.readLine()) != null) {
sb.append(line + ”
“);
}
out.close();
in.close();
System.out.println(sb.toString());
}
}
/**
* 自定义的认证管理类。
*
*
*/
class Java2000TrustManager implements X509TrustManager {
Java2000TrustManager() {
// 这里可以进行证书的初始化操作
}
// 检查客户端的可信任状态
public void checkClientTrusted(X509Certificate chain[], String authType) throws CertificateException {
System.out.println(“检查客户端的可信任状态…”);
}
// 检查服务器的可信任状态
public void checkServerTrusted(X509Certificate chain[], String authType) throws CertificateException {
System.out.println(“检查服务器的可信任状态”);
}
// 返回接受的发行商数组
public X509Certificate[] getAcceptedIssuers() {
System.out.println(“获取接受的发行商数组…”);
return null;
}
}

在web应用交互过程中,有很多场景需要保证通信数据的安全;在前面也有好多篇文章介绍了在Web Service调用过程中用WS-Security来保证接口交互过程的安全性,值得注意的是,该种方式基于的传输协议仍然是Http,采用这种方式可扩 展性和数据交互效率比较高;另外一种实现方式就是用Https,他是在协议层对Http的再次封装,加入了SSL/TLS,采用该协议进行通信的数据全部 都会被加密,由于目前Web开发编程中对此都有了一定程度的封装,所以采用Https对外提供服务,除了证书以外,对编程能力的要求并不高,相对于前者门 槛较低,但是由于对双方通信的所有数据都进行加密,而且交互过程中还有多次握手等,所以效率较低;以下就介绍下在Java中访问Https链接时会出现的 一些问题;

在Java中要访问Https链接时,会用到一个关键类HttpsURLConnection;参见如下实现代码:

// 创建URL对象
URL myURL = new URL(“https://www.sun.com”);

// 创建HttpsURLConnection对象,并设置其SSLSocketFactory对象
HttpsURLConnection httpsConn = (HttpsURLConnection) myURL
.openConnection();

// 取得该连接的输入流,以读取响应内容
InputStreamReader insr = new InputStreamReader(httpsConn
.getInputStream());

// 读取服务器的响应内容并显示
int respInt = insr.read();
while (respInt != -1) {
System.out.print((char) respInt);
respInt = insr.read();
}

在取得connection的时候和正常浏览器访问一样,仍然会验证服务端的证书是否被信任(权威机构发行或者被权威机构签名);如果服务端证书不被信任,则默认的实现就会有问题,一般来说,用SunJSSE会抛如下异常信息:
javax.net.ssl.SSLHandshakeException: sun.security.validator.ValidatorException: PKIX path building failed: sun.security.provider.certpath.SunCertPathBuilderException: unable to find valid certification path to requested target

上面提到SunJSSE,JSSE(Java Secure Socket Extension)是实现Internet安全通信的一系列包的集合。它是一个SSL和TLS的纯Java实现,可以透明地提供数据加密、服务器认证、 信息完整性等功能,可以使我们像使用普通的套接字一样使用JSSE建立的安全套接字。JSSE是一个开放的标准,不只是Sun公司才能实现一个 SunJSSE,事实上其他公司有自己实现的JSSE,然后通过JCA就可以在JVM中使用。
关于JSSE的详细信息参考官网Reference:http://java.sun.com/j2se/1.5.0/docs/guide/security/jsse/JSSERefGuide.html
以及Java Security Guide:http://java.sun.com/j2se/1.5.0/docs/guide/security/

在深入了解JSSE之前,需要了解一个有关Java安全的概念:客户端的TrustStore文件。客户端的TrustStore文件中保存着被客 户端所信任的服务器的证书信息。客户端在进行SSL连接时,JSSE将根据这个文件中的证书决定是否信任服务器端的证书。在SunJSSE中,有一个信任 管理器类负责决定是否信任远端的证书,这个类有如下的处理规则:
1、若系统属性javax.net.sll.trustStore指定了TrustStore文件,那么信任管理器就去jre安装路径下的lib/security/目录中寻找并使用这个文件来检查证书。
2、若该系统属性没有指定TrustStore文件,它就会去jre安装路径下寻找默认的TrustStore文件,这个文件的相对路径为:lib/security/jssecacerts
3、若jssecacerts不存在,但是cacerts存在(它随J2SDK一起发行,含有数量有限的可信任的基本证书),那么这个默认的TrustStore文件就是lib/security/cacerts

那遇到这种情况,怎么处理呢?有以下两种方案:
1、按照以上信任管理器的规则,将服务端的公钥导入到jssecacerts,或者是在系统属性中设置要加载的trustStore文件的路径;证书导入可以用如下命令:keytool -import -file src_cer_file –keystore dest_cer_store;至于证书可以通过浏览器导出获得;
2、实现自己的证书信任管理器类,比如MyX509TrustManager,该类必须实现X509TrustManager接口中的三个method;然后在HttpsURLConnection中加载自定义的类,可以参见如下两个代码片段,其一为自定义证书信任管理器,其二为connect时的代码:

package test;

import java.io.FileInputStream;
import java.security.KeyStore;
import java.security.cert.CertificateException;
import java.security.cert.X509Certificate;

import javax.net.ssl.TrustManager;
import javax.net.ssl.TrustManagerFactory;
import javax.net.ssl.X509TrustManager;

public class MyX509TrustManager implements X509TrustManager {

/*
* The default X509TrustManager returned by SunX509.  We’ll delegate
* decisions to it, and fall back to the logic in this class if the
* default X509TrustManager doesn’t trust it.
*/
X509TrustManager sunJSSEX509TrustManager;

MyX509TrustManager() throws Exception {
// create a “default” JSSE X509TrustManager.

KeyStore ks = KeyStore.getInstance(“JKS”);
ks.load(new FileInputStream(“trustedCerts”),
“passphrase”.toCharArray());

TrustManagerFactory tmf =
TrustManagerFactory.getInstance(“SunX509″, “SunJSSE”);

tmf.init(ks);

TrustManager tms [] = tmf.getTrustManagers();

/*
* Iterate over the returned trustmanagers, look
* for an instance of X509TrustManager.  If found,
* use that as our “default” trust manager.
*/
for (int i = 0; i < tms.length; i++) {
if (tms[i] instanceof X509TrustManager) {
sunJSSEX509TrustManager = (X509TrustManager) tms[i];
return;
}
}

/*
* Find some other way to initialize, or else we have to fail the
* constructor.
*/
throw new Exception(“Couldn’t initialize”);
}

/*
* Delegate to the default trust manager.
*/
public void checkClientTrusted(X509Certificate[] chain, String authType)
throws CertificateException {
try {
sunJSSEX509TrustManager.checkClientTrusted(chain, authType);
} catch (CertificateException excep) {
// do any special handling here, or rethrow exception.
}
}

/*
* Delegate to the default trust manager.
*/
public void checkServerTrusted(X509Certificate[] chain, String authType)
throws CertificateException {
try {
sunJSSEX509TrustManager.checkServerTrusted(chain, authType);
} catch (CertificateException excep) {
/*
* Possibly pop up a dialog box asking whether to trust the
* cert chain.
*/
}
}

/*
* Merely pass this through.
*/
public X509Certificate[] getAcceptedIssuers() {
return sunJSSEX509TrustManager.getAcceptedIssuers();
}
}

// 创建SSLContext对象,并使用我们指定的信任管理器初始化
TrustManager[] tm = { new MyX509TrustManager() };
SSLContext sslContext = SSLContext.getInstance(“SSL”, “SunJSSE”);

sslContext.init(null, tm, new java.security.SecureRandom());

// 从上述SSLContext对象中得到SSLSocketFactory对象
SSLSocketFactory ssf = sslContext.getSocketFactory();

// 创建URL对象
URL myURL = new URL(“https://ebanks.gdb.com.cn/sperbank/perbankLogin.jsp”);

// 创建HttpsURLConnection对象,并设置其SSLSocketFactory对象
HttpsURLConnection httpsConn = (HttpsURLConnection) myURL.openConnection();
httpsConn.setSSLSocketFactory(ssf);

// 取得该连接的输入流,以读取响应内容
InputStreamReader insr = new InputStreamReader(httpsConn.getInputStream());

// 读取服务器的响应内容并显示
int respInt = insr.read();
while (respInt != -1) {
System.out.print((char) respInt);
respInt = insr.read();
}

对于以上两种实现方式,各有各的优点,第一种方式不会破坏JSSE的安全性,但是要手工导入证书,如果服务器很多,那每台服务器的JRE都必须做相同的操作;第二种方式灵活性更高,但是要小心实现,否则可能会留下安全隐患;

java模拟网站登录

Posted by 冰河 at 13:18 No Responses » 24,549 Views
202010

web登陆无非就是网页获取,cookie 的管理,post和get方式的模拟。

1.网页内容获取 java.io.InputStream   in;
java.net.URL url = new java.net.URL(www.xyz.com/content.html);
java.net.HttpURLConnection connection = (java.net.HttpURLConnection)
url.openConnection();
connection = (java.net.HttpURLConnection) url.openConnection();
//模拟成IE
connection.setRequestProperty(“User-Agent”,”Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 6.0; Windows 2000)”);
connection.connect();
in = connection.getInputStream();
java.io.BufferedReader breader =
new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(in , “GBK”));
String str=breader.readLine());
while(st != null){
System.out.println(str); str=breader.readLine());
}
2.cookie管理
1.直接的方式
取得cookie:
HttpURLConnection huc= (HttpURLConnection) url.openConnection();
InputStream is = huc.getInputStream();
// 取得sessionID.
String cookieVal = hc.getHeaderField(“Set-Cookie”);
String sessionId;
if(cookieVal != null)
{
sessionId = cookieVal.substring(0, cookieVal.indexOf(“;”));
}
发送设置cookie:
HttpURLConnection huc= (HttpURLConnection) url.openConnection();
if(sessionId != null)
{
huc.setRequestProperty(“Cookie”, sessionId);
}
InputStream is = huc.getInputStream();

2.利用的jcookie包(http://jcookie.sourceforge.net/ )
获取cookie:
URL url = new URL(“http://www.site.com/”);
HttpURLConnection huc = (HttpURLConnection) url.openConnection();
huc.connect();
InputStream is = huc.getInputStream();
Client client = new Client();
CookieJar cj = client.getCookies(huc);

新的请求,利用上面获取的cookie:
url = new URL(“http://www.site.com/”);
huc = (HttpURLConnection) url.openConnection();
client.setCookies(huc, cj);

3.post方式的模拟
URL url = new URL(“www.xyz.com”);
HttpURLConnection huc = (HttpURLConnection) url.openConnection();
//设置允许output
huc.setDoOutput(true);
//设置为post方式
huc.setRequestMethod(“POST”);
huc.setRequestProperty(“User-Agent”,”Mozilla/4.7 [en] (Win98; I)”);
StringBuffer sb = new StringBuffer();
sb.append(“userName=”+userNme);
sb.append(“&password=”+password);

//post信息
OutputStream os = huc.getOutputStream();
os.write(sb.toString().getBytes(“GBK”));
os.close();

BufferedReader br = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(huc.getInputStream()))
huc.connect();
String line = br.readLine();
while(line != null){
System.out.printli(line);
line = br.readLine();
}

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